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AFRO-NETS> More than 137,000 free online articles
- Subject: AFRO-NETS> More than 137,000 free online articles
- From: Dr Sigmund de Janos <email@example.com>
- Date: Tue, 4 Apr 2000 05:44:13 -0400 (EDT)
More than 137,000 free online articles
EdResource has published the following news release:
HighWire Press publishers offer more than 137,000 free online arti-
Stanford University's HighWire Press announced Thursday that publish-
ers of the journals it hosts now provide free online access to the
full text of more than 137,000 articles. As a result, HighWire Press
is now home to the second-largest free full-text science archive in
the world - and the largest in the life sciences - with three en-
tirely free journals, 51 journals offering free back issues and 32
offering free trial access.
HighWire Press - the online journal-production division of the Stan-
ford University Libraries - provides free and subscription-based ac-
cess-technology services to more than 180 high-impact journals and
more than 600,000 articles, mostly in the fields of science, technol-
ogy and medicine.
"We are extremely pleased with the trend to allow free access on the
part of the publishers we serve, which are largely not-for-profit
scholarly societies and publishers," said Michael A. Keller, Stanford
University Librarian and publisher of HighWire Press.
"Although it is a decision made by each society, based on the busi-
ness plan for each journal, we applaud their willingness to make the
back files more accessible to the public. It helps fulfill HighWire's
mission to support and improve scholarly communication - that is, to
make the fruits of scholarly research as broadly available as possi-
"Further, we think that providing back issues without restriction
helps assure institutional subscribers - libraries, universities and
laboratories - that they need not rely absolutely on the printed ver-
sions of the journals as backup to online subscriptions."
John Sack, associate publisher and director of HighWire Press, added,
"The HighWire program works because we and the societies share the
same basic goal of advancing scholarship through dissemination of
peer-reviewed, research-based articles. Open access to back issues
works economically for the publishers - because the need for current
issues [rather than back issues] drives their subscriptions - and
technically - because HighWire's access control software is extremely
flexible, and our bandwidth is quite high."
In addition to the free back issues, the participating publishers of-
fer "toll-free linking" of articles, in which a reader who subscribes
(either individually or through an institution) to one journal can
click on a reference in an article to another article from another
journal and read the full text of the linked article, whether or not
that reader has subscription rights to that second journal.
This powerful service to the reader means that a further 70,000 arti-
cles published online through HighWire can be available free in ap-
propriate contexts. It also greatly facilitates the scholar's re-
search productivity by enabling a seamless investigation through the
trail of citation and evidence.
HighWire became home to the largest free full-text life science ar-
chives after several key developments following publishers' deci-
sions: the loading of the 1990-1995 content of Proceedings of the Na-
tional Academy of Sciences (PNAS), which added nearly 15,000 freely
available articles; the annual New Year's release to the public of
the previous volume of the Journal of Biological Chemistry - nearly
5,300 articles for the 1999 volume; and a decision by the American
Physiological Society (APS) to provide free access to back issues of
all its online publications. APS's decision added more than 5,000 ar-
ticles to those already free at HighWire-operated sites.
According to Martin Frank, executive director of the APS, "We have
long supported the idea of disseminating science as widely and freely
as possible. Giving the world access to our 13 subscription-based
journals after 12 months allows us to do just that. Access to all is-
sues of APS's Advances in Physiology Education will continue to be
available to the world at no charge."
Robert Simoni, professor of biological sciences at Stanford and an
editor of the Journal of Biological Chemistry (JBC), said: "We at
ASBMB, publisher of the JBC, are delighted that HighWire has fostered
and facilitated this remarkable innovation [of easily freeing back
content] and helped us meet our society's commitment to barrier-free
access to research information. Journals in the HighWire group now
release their back issue papers free in order to better serve both
the authors and readers. HighWire and its publishers now provide the
largest repository of free research information in the life sciences
in the world."
JBC and PNAS began the program of free back issues along with Rocke-
feller University Press' three journals - the Journal of Cell Biol-
ogy, the Journal of Experimental Medicine and the Journal of General
Physiology - when they discussed a common concern about educational
uses of the research literature and recognized that the electronic
technology gave them a no-cost opportunity to serve those readers.
PNAS now also has more than 26,000 articles free from its 1990-1999
archive. Rockefeller University Press journals now make several thou-
sand articles free as well.
Subsequently, 17 publishers of more than 50 journals have joined the
program. Some of the largest participants include the entirely free
British Medical Journal, with more than 22,000 free articles from
1994-2000, and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), with
nearly 26,000 free articles from its 10 journals for 1995-1999.
"ASM has made the decision to provide free online access to journal
content that is one year old or older on a continuously moving 12-
month window," said Samuel Kaplan, chair of the ASM Publications
Board. "We believe this to be the best way of insuring the greatest
possible access to the science published in our journals. ASM views
this to be a major part of its mission. Also, we know that our jour-
nals have a lasting 'shelf life' for print subscribers, so it's
gratifying to know that we now provide an online back-volume archive
to subscribers and non-subscribers alike. ASM is pleased that this
'milestone' of 130,000 such articles has been achieved and are proud
to have played a role in this achievement."
Other journals and publishers participating in the program include
the four journals of the American Society for Pharmacology and Ex-
perimental Therapeutics, Drug Metabolism and Disposition, the Journal
of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Molecular Pharmacology
and Pharmacological Reviews; the Journal of Neuroscience from the So-
ciety for Neuroscience; the Journal of Clinical Investigation from
the American Society for Clinical Investigation; the two journals of
the American Society of Plant Physiologists, The Plant Cell andPlant
Physiology; Clinical Chemistry from the American Association for
Clinical Chemistry; Molecular Biology of the Cell from the American
Society for Cell Biology; the Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochem-
istry from the Histochemical Society; the Biophysical Journal from
the Biophysical Society; the five journals of the American Heart As-
sociation, Circulation, Circulation Research, Hypertension, Stroke
and Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology; Blood from the
American Society of Hematology; Thorax, the Journal of Neurology,
Neurosurgery & Psychiatry and Archives of Disease in Childhood from
the BMJ Publishing Group; the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
from the American Society for Clinical Nutrition; and Genes & Devel-
opment, Genome Research and Learning & Memory from Cold Spring Harbor
Labs Press. A complete list of journals offering free back issues and
free trials is on the HighWire Press website at
Stanford's HighWire Press makes it easy for publishers to offer their
content without charge to users. "It really takes only a few minutes
for us to implement a publisher's decision to make content free on an
immediate basis, or delayed by a number of months or a volume," Sack
said. As a result, several other societies and publishers are consid-
ering making their back content free under this program.
Additional information about HighWire is found at:
This page also includes links to all journals placed online by High-
Wire for their publishers, links to the 10 largest archives of free
science articles and links to the 500 most-frequently cited journals'
Associate Publisher and Director
Dr Sigmund de Janos
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