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AFRO-NETS> Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Subject: AFRO-NETS> Sender: email@example.com
- From: Ron Tyler <firstname.lastname@example.org>
- Date: Thu, 29 Aug 2002 04:38:40 -0400 (EDT)
HPV (Human Papilloma Virus), Cervical Cancer, STDs and Condoms
[From the moderator: Though the author (RT) has compiled some useful
material about the topic, his major goal seems to discredit use of
condoms (see previous messages: e.g. AFRO-NETS> Condom breakage &
failure; 14 Jul 2002) - a questionable stand in times of HIV/AIDS.
"Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers, accounting for 6%
of all malignancies in women. There are an estimated 16,000 new cases
of invasive cancer of the cervix and 5,000 deaths in the United
States each year. The prognosis for this disease is markedly affected
by the extent of disease at the time of diagnosis. . . . . ."
"Human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer Molecular tech-
niques for the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA are
highly sensitive and specific. It is estimated that more than 6 mil-
lion women in the United States have HPV infection and proper inter-
pretation of these data is important. Epidemiologic studies convinc-
ingly demonstrate that the major risk factor for development of pre-
invasive or invasive carcinoma of the cervix is HPV infection, which
far outweighs other known risk factors such as high parity, increas-
ing number of sexual partners, young age at first intercourse, low
socioeconomic status, and positive smoking history...."
Human Papillomavirus and Genital Warts
"Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common causes of sexu-
ally transmitted disease (STD) in the world. Experts estimate that as
many as 24 million Americans are infected with HPV, and the frequency
of infection and disease appears to be increasing. More than 60 types
of HPV have been identified by scientists.... About one-third of the
HPV types are spread through sexual contact and live only in genital
tissue. Low-risk types of HPV cause genital warts, the most recogniz-
able sign of genital HPV infection. Other high-risk types of HPV
cause cervical cancer and other genital cancers."
"Like many sexually transmitted organisms, HPV usually causes a si-
lent infection, that is one that does not have visible symptoms. One
study sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious
Diseases (NIAID) reported that almost half of the women infected with
HPV had no obvious symptoms. Because the viral infection persists,
individuals may not be aware of their infection or the potential risk
of transmission to others and of developing complications."
"Genital warts (condylomata acuminata or venereal warts) are caused
by only a few of the many types of HPV... Genital warts are spread by
sexual contact with an infected partner and are very contagious. Ap-
proximately two-thirds of people who have sexual contact with a part-
ner with genital warts will develop warts, usually within three
months of contact. Scientists estimate that as many as 1 million new
cases of genital warts are diagnosed in the United States each year."
[RT: Please note that "Genital warts are spread by sexual contact
with an infected partner and are VERY contagious" CAPS mine. This
American Medical Association statement contradicts statements made by
other less credible sites that it is NOT very contagious.]
"In women, the warts occur on the outside and inside of the vagina,
on the cervix (the opening to the uterus), or around the anus. In
men, genital warts are less common. If present, they are seen on the
tip of the penis; however, they also may be found on the shaft of the
penis, on the scrotum, or around the anus. Rarely, genital warts also
can develop in the mouth or throat of a person who has had oral sex-
ual contact with an infected person. Genital warts often occur in
clusters and can be very tiny or can spread into large masses on
genital tissues. Left untreated, genital warts often disappear. In
other cases, they eventually may develop a fleshy, small raised
growth with a cauliflower-like appearance. Because there is no way to
predict whether the warts will grow or disappear, however, people who
suspect that they have genital warts should be examined and treated,
[RT: Please note "In men, genital warts are less common.... on the
scrotum, or around the anus." A condom does not cover the scrotum or
the area around the anus. HPV therefore can be passed from the scro-
tum to the area around the anus of the male or female partner, or
from around the anus to the scrotum, with condoms affording no pro-
tection from this transmission.]
[RT: Please note "...genital warts also can develop in the mouth or
throat of a person who has had oral sexual contact with an infected
person.". A condom provides no protection from the transmission of
HPV by the contact of lips/tongue/ mouth with the clitoris/vagina.]
"Depending on factors such as their size and location, genital warts
are treated in several ways. Although treatments can eliminate the
warts, none eradicate the virus and warts often reappear after treat-
ment. Patients should consult their doctors to determine the best
treatment for them."
[RT: Please note "Although treatments can eliminate the warts, NONE
ERADICATE THE VIRUS and warts often reappear after treatment." CAPS
"Low-risk papilloma viruses cause warts but not cervical cancer.
High-risk viruses, however, cause cervical cancer and also are asso-
ciated with vulvar cancer, anal cancer, and cancer of the penis (a
rare cancer). Although most HPV infections do not progress to cancer,
it is particularly important for women who have cervical dysplasia to
have regular Pap smears. Potentially pre-cancerous cervical disease
is readily treatable."
"The only way to prevent HPV infection is to avoid direct contact
with the virus, which is transmitted by skin-to-skin contact. If
warts are visible in the genital area, sexual contact should be
avoided until the warts are treated. Using a latex condom during sex-
ual intercourse may provide some protection."
[RT: Please note "Using a latex condom during sexual intercourse may
provide SOME protection." Some protection is unreliable and inade-
quate protection, and offers no protection in scrotum-anus contact,
mouth-clitoris/vagina and finger-anus/genital contact.]
HPV and Genital Warts
What are HPV and Genital Warts?
"HPV is a type of virus (Human papillomavirus) that causes warts on
people. A few types cause warts on hands and feet but many other
types cause warts on the genitals (sex organs or private parts).
These warts can be as big as nickles or so small you can't see them.
There are over one million new cases per year in the United States."
[RT: Please note that HPV viruses can be transmitted by contact with
How do you get HPV and Genital Warts?
"Anyone can get HPV. The most common way to get it is by having sex
or touching the genitals of someone who already has the infection.
Rarely, people can be born with the infection or children can get it
while being bathed or changed. Sometimes people become infected with
HPV and the warts will not develop for many years."
[RT: Please note that HPV can be passed by touch alone, any infected
skin contacting uninfected skin.]
How do I tell if I have HPV and Genital Warts?
"Your doctor can usually tell if you have genital warts. Sometimes it
is easy to tell because you can see the warts. They look like skin
colored bumps or a lot of little fingers. There can be just one or
many of them. Other times they are so small that your doctor must put
vinegar on the wart and use a magnifying glass or microscope to see
the wart. This does not hurt. Your doctor can usually tell if it is a
wart or one of the things that just looks like one. The warts may
also make a Pap smear abnormal."
Can I give HPV or Genital Warts to someone else?
"Yes. You can pass them to someone else during sex. The best way to
not pass them on is not to have sex. Condoms (rubbers) may help to
slow its spread. If you have had sex with another person many times,
they are probably already infected."
[RT: Please note that condoms can only "help to slow its spread", and
as we have seen above, cannot prevent transmission from scrotum to
areas around the genital/anus, or from fingers to such areas, or from
the lips/tongue to vagina/clitoris.]
Do HPV and Genital Warts cause cancer?
"Doctors have found that women with genital warts get cancer of the
cervix more often. If you are a woman with genital warts, you should
have a Pap smear every year to catch a precancer while it is still
easy to cure."
Can HPV and Genital Warts be cured?
"There are many ways genital warts can be treated. One way is putting
chemicals such as Podophyllin, Condylox, or trichloroacetic acid on
the wart to kill and dissolve it. Another is to freeze them off. The
warts can also be cut off using electric loops, lasers, or surgery.
You should never use over the counter cures for warts near the sex
organs because they can cause severe irritation. These treatments
will get rid of the warts but you probably can not ever get rid of
HPV. The virus is still inside and may cause more warts in the fu-
ture. This is why it may take a long time to cure genital warts. Al-
ways talk to your doctor about your treatment and make sure you un-
derstand what to do and when to come back."
[RT: Please note there is probably no cure for genital warts. "These
treatments will get rid of the warts but you probably can not ever
get rid of HPV. The virus is still inside and may cause more warts in
What about HPV and Genital Warts and pregnancy?
"Genital warts may grow and bleed during pregnancy. Unless they get
so big they block the birth canal, this is usually not a problem. Al-
though it is possible for a baby to get HPV during birth, this rarely
happens. Having genital warts is not a reason to have a C-section
(caesarean-section) for delivery."
When is Treatment Complete?
"Recognizing the point of successful eradication of warts using
cryotherapy or chemical means can be difficult. The return of normal
skin lines suggests resolution of infection. Some physicians apply
acetic acid to past areas of infection to help identify remaining
warts by turning them white. Unfortunately, one can never by certain
when a complete cure is achieved. Thus, patient and physician obser-
vation for continued infection is necessary for several weeks follow-
ing cessation of treatment."
[RT: Please note "Unfortunately, one can never by certain when a com-
plete cure is achieved."]
"The virus is also found in the genital area including in and around
the anus, vagina, and on the penis...... Certain types and in par-
ticular, type 16 and 33 (genital strain) are associated with more se-
rious changes in the skin that may lead to cancer. Studies have shown
a close link between these types of HPV and cancer of the cervix."
[RT: Please note that condoms do not prevent contact with infected
skin "around" the anus, vagina"]
"Unlike the herpes virus which travels into the nerve cells, HPV is
localized in the skin. However, many HPV infections are invisible.
This means that the virus has altered the DNA structure of the cell
but shows no visible signs on the skin. Millions of people are un-
aware that they have HPV, only a medical sampling of the skin will
determine if the virus is prevalent."
[RT: Please note that HPV is found in the skin, so anywhere a person
has skin the infected person could have HPV infected skin, including
the crotch, scrotum, labia, the pubic area and all the skin around
the anus -- all areas that are unprotected by the condom.]
"A Swedish research team published data in the New England Journal of
Medicine demonstrating "a strong concordance between the type of HPV"
found in cytologically normal baseline Pap smears and biopsies ob-
tained later from a group of women who developed cervical cancer...."
"At the time their cancer was diagnosed (on average, 5.6 years after
enrollment), 77% of the women for whom tissue samples were available
tested positive for HPV DNA -- and always with the same strains as at
"Wright and colleagues compared clinician conducted cytologic screen-
ings with HPV DNA testing on sell-collected vaginal samples from pre-
viously unscreened women, age 35 years and older, in a "periurban
settlement" near Cape Town, South Africa..... In the South African
study, Pap smears detected cancer in 68% of women with invasive cer-
vical cancer or high-grade lesions, and 66% of these women tested
positive for HPV."
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